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On Atmospheric Brown Clouds

Ramanathan, V., M. Agrawal, H. Akimoto, M. Auffhammer, S. Devotta, L. Emberson, S.I. Hasnain, M. Iyngararasan, A. Jayaraman, M. Lawrence, T. Nakajima, T. Oki, H. Rodhe, M. Ruchirawat, S.K. Tan, J. Vincent, J.Y. Wang, D. Yang, Y.H. Zhang, H. Autrup, L. Barregard, P. Bonasoni, M. Brauer, B. Brunekreef, G. Carmichael, C.E. Chung, J. Dahe, Y. Feng, S. Fuzzi, T. Gordon, A.K. Gosain, N. Htun, J. Kim, S. Mourato, L. Naeher, P. Navasumrit, B. Ostro, T. Panwar, M.R. Rahman, M.V. Ramana, M. Rupakheti, D. Settachan, A.K. Singh, G. St. Helen, P.V. Tan, P.H. Viet, J. Yinlong, S.C. Yoon, W.C. Chang, X. Wang, J. Zelikoff and A. Zhu (2008), Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Regional Assessment Report with Focus on Asia, published by the United Nations Environment Program, Nairobi, Kenya, pp. 1-360

"Atmospheric Brown Clouds" V. Ramanathan and P. J. Crutzen, Atmospheric Environment, 37, 4033-4035, 2003.

"Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Long Range Transport and Climate Impacts," V. Ramanathan and M. V. Ramana, EM, December 2003, 28-33.

Ramanathan, V., 2006: “Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Health, Climate and Agriculture Impacts” in the Pontifical Academy of Sciences Scripta Varia 106 Interactions Between Global Change and Human Health, (Pontifica Academia Scientiarvm 2006), pp. 47-60.

Ramanathan V., M.V. Ramana, G. Roberts, D. Kim, C.E. Corrigan, C.E. Chung & D. Winker (2007). Warming trends in Asia amplified by brown cloud solar absorption. Nature, 448, 575-578 doi:10.1038/nature06019.

Ramanathan, V., F. Li, M.V. Ramana, P.S. Praveen, D. Kim, C.E. Corrigan, H. Nguyen (2007). Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Hemispherical and regional variations in long range transport, absorption, and radiative forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D22S21, doi:10.1029/2006JD008124.

Hadley, O.L., V. Ramanathan, G.R. Carmichael, Y. Tang, G.C. Roberts, and G.S. Mauger (2007). Trans-Pacific transport of black carbon and fine aerosols (D < 2.5µm) into North America. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D05309, doi:10.1029/2006JD007632.

Auffhammer, M., V. Ramanathan, and J. R. Vincent, 2006: Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India, PNAS, 10.1073/pnas.0609584104.

Chung, C.E., V. Ramanathan, D. Kim, and I. A. Podgorny, 2005: Global Anthropogenic Aerosol Direct Forcing Derived from Satellite and Ground-Based Observations. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D24207, doi:10.1029/2005JD006356.

Ramanathan, V., C. Chung, D. Kim, T. Bettge, L. Buja, J. T. Kiehl, W. M. Washington, Q. Fu, D. R. Sikka, and M. Wild, 2005: Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Impacts on South Asian Climate and Hydrological Cycle. PNAS, Vol. 102, No. 15, 5326-5333.

Crutzen, P.J. and V. Ramanathan, 2003: The Parasol Effect in Climate. Science, 302, 1679-1681.

Ramanathan, V. and M. V. Ramana, 2003: Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Long Range Transport and Climate Impacts. EM, December 2003, 28-33.

Ramanathan, V. and P. J. Crutzen, 2003: New Directions: Atmospheric Brown "Clouds". Atmospheric Environment, 37, 4033-4035.

UNEP and C4, 2002: The Asian Brown Cloud: Climate and Other Environmental Impacts. UNEP, Nairobi .

Ramanathan, V., P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl and D. Rosenfeld, 2001: Aerosols, Climate, and The Hydrological Cycle. Science, 294, 2119-2124.

Ramanathan, V., et al., 2001: The Indian Ocean Experiment: An Integrated Assessment of the Climate Forcing and Effects of the Great Indo-Asian Haze. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres,106, (D 22), 28371-28399.

Satheesh, S.K. and V. Ramanathan, 2000: Large Differences in Tropical Aerosol Forcing at the Top of the Atmosphere and Earth’s surface. Nature, 405: 60-63.

Meywerk, J. and V. Ramanathan, 1999: Observations of the Spectral Clear-Sky Aerosol Forcing over the Tropical Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres, 104(D20): 24359-24370.

Jayaraman, A., D. Lubin, S. Ramachandran, V. Ramanathan, E. Woodbridge, W.D. Collins and K.S. Zalpuri, 1998: Direct Observations of Aerosol Radiative Forcing over the Tropical Indian Ocean During the January-February 1996 Pre-INDOEX Cruise. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres, 103(D12): 13827-13836.